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Integrative Organismal Biology orchestrates current understandings of the causes and outcomes of individual variety at the physiological, conduct and organismal levels. Underscoring key themes, for example, phenotypic versatility and adaptability, and outlining rising zones, for example, environmental immunology, oxidative pressure science and others, Integrative Organismal Biology pulls together data from different orders to give an engineered perspective of the part of the person in development. It mostly focusses on part of the person in transformative and natural procedures
Cell is the basic functional and structural unit of life. The study of cell and is called Cell Biology. Cell biology is also a branch of biology that studies the different structures and functions of the cell and focuses mainly on the idea of the cell as the basic unit of life. Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). Cell study is done on both microscopic and macroscopic level. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology
Molecular Biology is a branch of biology which deals the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, and proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions. The field of molecular biology overlaps with biology and chemistry and in particular, genetics and biochemistry. A key area of molecular biology concerns understanding how various cellular systems interact in terms of the way DNA, RNA and protein synthesis function. The specific techniques used in molecular biology are native to the field but may also be combined with methods and concepts concerning genetics and biochemistry, so there is no big distinction made between these disciplines.
Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modelling of complex biological systems. It is a biology-based interdisciplinary field of study that focuses on complex interactions within biological systems, using a holistic approach (holism instead of the more traditional reductionism) to biological research. The Human Genome Project is an example of applied systems thinking in biology which has led to new, collaborative ways of working on problems in the biological field of genetics. One of the aims of systems biology is to model and discover emergent properties, properties of cells, tissues and organisms functioning as a system whose theoretical description is only possible using techniques of systems biology. These typically involve metabolic networks or cell signalling networks.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering. Synthetic biology applies biotechnology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, molecular engineering, systems biology, biophysics, electrical engineering, computer engineering, control engineering and evolutionary biology disciplines to build artificial biological systems for research, engineering and medical applications. Synthetic biology is seen differently by biologists and engineers. The definition of synthetic biology is also debated in the human sciences, arts and politics. One of the popular definitions of Synthetic Biology is designing and constructing biological modules, biological systems, and biological machines or, re-design of existing biological systems for useful purposes". A community of experts across many disciplines is coming together to create these new foundations for many industries, including medicine, energy and the environment.
Structural biology is the study of the molecular structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, particularly proteins and nucleic acids, and how alterations in their structures affect their function. Structural biology incorporates the principles of molecular biology, biochemistry and biophysics. In biology, a key idea is that structure determines function. In other words, the way something is arranged enables it to play its role, full fill its job, within an organism (a living thing). Structure-function relationships arise through the process of natural selection. This subject is of great interest to biologists because macromolecules carry out most of the functions of cells, and it is only by coiling into specific three-dimensional shapes that they are able to perform these functions. This architecture, the "tertiary structure" of molecules, depends in a complicated way on each molecule's basic composition, or "primary structure."
Computational Biology, which includes many aspects of bioinformatics, is the science of using biological data to develop algorithms or models to understand biological systems and relationships. Computational biology and bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops and applies computational methods to analyse large collections of biological data, such as genetic sequences, cell populations or protein samples, to make new predictions or discover new biology. Computational biology is similar to bioinformatics which is an interdisciplinary science using computers to store and process biological data. Since the late 1990s, computational biology has become an important part of developing emerging technologies for the field of biology. Computational biology has been used to help sequence the human genome, create accurate models of the human brain, and assist in modelling biological systems.
Developmental biology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop. It involves the thorough studies of genetic control of cell growth, differentiation and "morphogenesis," which is the process that gives rise to tissues, organs and anatomy. Developmental biology includes both animal biology as well as plant biology. In the late 20th century, the discipline has largely transformed into evolutionary developmental biology. The main processes involved in the embryonic development of animals are: regional specification, morphogenesis, cell differentiation, growth, and the overall control of timing explored in evolutionary developmental biology. The development of plants involves similar processes to that of animals. However plant cells are mostly immotile so morphogenesis is achieved by differential growth, without cell movements. Also, the inductive signals and the genes involved are different from those that control animal development.
Comparative biology is a sub branch of biology concerns with cross-lineage approach to understanding the phylogenetic history of individuals or higher taxa and the mechanisms and patterns that drives it. Comparative biology uses natural variation and disparity to understand the patterns of life at all levels—from genes to communities—and the critical role of organisms in ecosystems. Comparative biology encompasses Evolutionary Biology, Systematics, Neonatology, Palaeontology, Ethology, Anthropology, and Biogeography as well as historical approaches to Developmental biology, Genomics, Physiology, Ecology and many other areas of the biological sciences. The comparative approach also has numerous applications in human health, genetics, biomedicine, and conservation biology. The biological relationships (phylogenies, pedigree) are important for comparative analyses and usually represented by a phylogenetic tree or cladogram to differentiate those features with single origins (Homology) from those with multiple origins (Homoplasy).
A species is often defined as a group of closely related organisms that are very similar to each other and are usually capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. The species is the fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or subgenus. The study of particular species is called species Biology. In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity.
Plant Biology is nothing but Botany. The plants also have life. The study which deals with the plant life is called plant biology. It is the huge part and branch of biology. They are synonyms like plant sciences, phytology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae. Botanists are studying approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants) and ca 20,000 are bryophytes.
The branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings is called Ecology and Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor. These processes include natural selection, common descent, and speciation. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology need to be studied in order to understand the current changes in the biology field and systems.
Cancer Biology is a term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. The study of these cancer cells and mechanism is called cancer biology. There are several main types of cancer. Cancer cells behave as independent cells, growing without control to form tumors. Cancer biology encompasses the application of systems biology approaches to cancer research, in order to study the disease as a complex adaptive system with emerging properties at multiple biological scales. More explicitly, because cancer spans multiple biological, spatial and temporal scales, communication and feedback mechanisms across the scales create a highly complex dynamic system.
Cancer biology therefore adopts a holistic view of cancer aimed at integrating its many biological scales, including genetics, signalling networks, epigenetics, cellular behaviour, histology, (pre)clinical manifestations and epidemiology. Basic researchers and clinicians have progressively recognized the complexity of cancer and of its interaction with the micro- and macro-environment, since putting together the components to provide a cohesive view of the disease has been challenging and hampered progress. Most recent research are going on Cancer Genetics, Carcinogenesis, DNA damage and repair, Apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis, Tumor microenvironment, Molecular mechanisms of Cancer Pathogenesis, Cancer stem cells, Discovery of tumor suppressor genes, Aberrant signalling pathways in tumor cells, Roles of ubiquitination pathways in cancer, Molecular cancer epidemiology, Cancer detection and therapy.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells, ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. Genetics and biology have a close relationship in terms of living organism formation and growth. Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems.
Epigenetics typically means "above" or "on top of" genetics. It refers to external modifications to DNA that turn genes "on" or "off." These modifications do not change the DNA sequence, but instead, they affect how cells "read" genes. Epigenetic changes alter the physical structure of DNA. It can also define as "the study of the mechanisms of temporal and spatial control of gene activity during the development of complex organisms." Thus epigenetic can be used to describe anything other than DNA sequence that influences the development of an organism.
The biophysical environment is the biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution. The biophysical environment can vary in scale from microscopic to global in extent. Biological engineering (Cellular and Molecular Bio-Engineering) or bioengineering (including biological systems engineering) is the application of concepts and methods of biology (and secondarily of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science (In vitro testing in bioengineering) to solve real-world problems related to the life sciences or the application thereof, using engineering's own analytical and synthetic methodologies (defined as Synthetic bioengineering) and also its traditional sensitivity to the cost and practicality of the solution(s) arrived at. In this context, while traditional engineering applies physical and mathematical sciences to analyse, design and manufacture inanimate tools, structures and processes, biological engineering uses rimarily the rapidly developing body of knowledge known as molecular biology to study and advance applications of living organisms and to create biotechnology like Cancer Bioengineering used for Organ bioengineering and regeneration.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. By controlling information flow through biochemical signalling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine to genetics are engaged in biochemical research. Today, the main focus of pure biochemistry is on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of tissues, organs, and whole organisms that is, all of biology.
Tumour Genomics is the investigation of hereditary transformations in charge of malignancy, utilizing genome sequencing and bioinformatics. Disease genomics is to enhance growth treatment and results lies in figuring out which sets of qualities and quality associations influence diverse subsets of tumors. Universal Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) is a deliberate experimental association that gives a discussion to joint effort among the world's driving growth and genomic analysts.
DNA technology is an exciting field these days. This is the study and manipulation of genetic material, and scientists are using DNA technology for a wide variety of purposes and products. A major component of DNA technology is cloning, which is the process of making multiple, identical copies of a gene. In biology a clone is a group of individual cells or organisms descended from one progenitor. This means that the members of a clone are genetically identical, because cell replication produces identical daughter cells each time.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria. Human genomes include both protein-coding DNA genes and noncoding DNA. In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). The genome includes the genes (the coding regions) and the noncoding DNA, as well as the genetic material of the mitochondria and chloroplastas.
The science of altering and cloning genes to produce a new trait in an organism or to make a biological substance, such as a protein or hormone is called Genome Engineering. Genetic engineering mainly involves the creation of recombinant DNA, which is then inserted into the genetic material of a cell or virus.